After 350 years the Dutch excommunication of Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza, 11/24/1632-2/21/1677, is removed.

        Spinoza laid the foundations for a new, free society, ruled by law, yet in accord with divine nature in his four books and applied his principles to ethics, politics, and religion.  

         His philosophy shows the direct influence of the Talmud, Kabala, Maimonides, Christian Scholastics, and Descartes.  Although he spoke Hebrew and Spanish fluently, he wrote in Dutch and Latin.

         Spinoza was a genius misunderstood in his time but subsequent generations who applied his teachings  affected Europe through the twentieth century.  The 21st century in tune with his philosophy has rehabilitated the Jewish scholar. 








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